EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER
The electronic machine, Computer, is an incredible invention in the human history. The history of computer goes around 100 years back but the evolution in the lifestyle of mankind has only been in the last 50 years.
- Abacus :-
-The Abacus was developed in China about 5000 years ago.
-It is the First Mechanical Calculator.
- Pascal’s Calculator:-
-The first calculator which was only able to do addition and subtraction.
-Invented by French Scientist and Mathematician, Blaise Pascal.
-First Electronic digital computer.
-ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer.
-Developed in 1946 by John Mauchley and J. Presper Eckert.
- UNIVAC 1:
-Introduced in 1951 as the First commercially available computer.
-It stands for ‘Universal Automatic Computer’.
1. i) First Generation:-
-They used ‘Vacuum tubes’ to store instructions.
-They used ‘Magnetic Drums’ for memory/storage.
- ii) Second Generation:
-Computers used ‘Transistors’ instead of Vacuum tubes.
-They used ‘Magnetic Core’ for memory/Storage.
1. iii) Third Generation:-
- The ‘Integrated Circuits’ (IC) replaced the transistors.
-The IC was developed by J. S. Kilbi
- iv) Fourth Generation:-
-‘Microprocessor’ was developed by using LSI (Large Scale Integration) technology.
-Miniaturization of components led to small and powerful computers.
- v) Fifth Generation:-
-The present generation computing devices are based on ‘Artificial Intelligence’ and are still in development.
-Artificial Intelligence refers to the technique used to reduce complex programming.
Other Important information
- Father of Computer – Charles Babbage
- First Computer Programmer – Lady Lovelace
- First program-controlled calculator – Mark 1
- World’s First Super computer – Cray 1 – Developed by Cray Research Company in 1976
- India’s First Super computer – PARAM- Developed by C-DAC in 1991